AP Statistics

Statistics online help  Pearson Education
In the drop down menu pick pick the following category:
sullivan: statistics: informed decisions using data, 3e


AP Statistics  Fall 2011; unit 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
AP Statistics  syllabus
AP Statistics  formula packet
Useful Stats links  refer to these regularly to help 'get it'!
60 minutes  Statistics used to catch cheaters in poker
another CLT (Central Limit Theorem)applet
AP Central Test Schedule & Fees
Central Limit Theorem practice website (sampling distribution)
chisquared link  drexel question blog
correlation by eye applet
drexel forum on chisquared test
Random.org  introduction to randomness
Random Variables vs. Algebraic Variables
Regression applet
Regression by eye applet
Type I & Type II errors  The link for the applet is at the bottom of the page.
Confidence intervals  Option 2 is good. Choose a confidence level and click animate. Watch as you see the selection of samples and the corresponding confidence intervals for the selected samples. For each you can see if the population parameter falls within the interval.
Why Variance Matters  Ap Central
BVD Stats tutorials  Pearson
01. Stats Starts Here
02. Data
03. For Example: Identifying the Who What and Why
04. Displaying and Describing Categorical Data
05. StepbyStep Example: Examining Contingency Tables
06. Displaying and Summarizing Quantitative Data
07. Stepby Step Example: Shape, Center, and Spread
08. StepbyStep Example: Summarizing a distribution
09. Understanding and comparing Distributions
10. StepbyStep Example: Comparing Groups
11. The Standard Deviation as a Ruler
12. StepbyStep Example: Working with Standardized Variables
13. StepbyStep Example: Working with the 689599.7 rule
14. StepbyStep Example: Working with Normal Models I
15. StepbyStep Example: Working with Normal Models II
16. StepbyStep Example: More working with Normal Models
17. Scatterplots, Association and Correlation
18. StepbyStep Example: Looking at Association
19. Linear Regression
20. StepbyStep Example: Calculating a Regresion Equation
21. StepbyStep Example: Regression
22. Regression Wisdom
23. For Example: Using Several of These Methods Together
24. Reexpressing Data: Get It Straight!
25. StepbyStep Example: Reexpressing to Straighten a Scatterplot
26. Understanding Randomness
27. StepbyStep Example: Simulation
28. Sample Surveys
29. StepbyStep Example: Sampling
30. Experiments and Obervational Studies
31. StepbyStep Example: Designing an Experiment
32. From Randomness to Probability
33. StepbyStep Example: Probability
34. Probability Rules!
35. StepbyStep Example: Using the General Addition Rule
36. StepbyStep Example: Are the Events Disjoint? Independent?
37. StepbyStep Example: Reversing the Condition
38. Random Variables
39. StepbyStep Example: Expected Values and Standard Deviation of Discrete Random Variables
40. StepbyStep Example: Hitting the Road: Means and Variances
41. StepbyStep Example: Packaging Stereos
42. Probability Models
43. StepbyStep Example: Working with a Geometric Model
44. StepbyStep Example: Working with the Binomial Model
45. Sampling Distribution Models
46. StepbyStep Example: Working with Sampling Distrubution Models for Proportions
48. StepbyStep Example: Working with the Sampling Distribution Model for the Mean
49. Confidence Intervals for Proportions
50. StepbyStep Example: A confidence Interval for a Proportion
51. Testing Hypotheses about Proportions
52. StepbyStep Example: Testing a Hypothesis
53. StepbyStep Example: Tests and Intervals
54. More About Tests and Intervals
55. StepbyStep example: Another OneProportion Ztest
56. StepbyStep Example: Wear that Seatbelt!
57. Comparing Two Proportions
58. StepbyStep Example: A TwoProportion zInterval
59. StepbyStep Example: A TwoProportion ztest
60. Inferences About Means
61. StepbyStep Example: A OneSample tinterval for the Mean
62. StepbyStep Example: A OneSample tTest for the Mean
63. Comparing Means
64. StepbyStep Example: A TwoSample tInterval
65. StepbyStep Example: A TwoSample tTest for the Difference Between Two Means
66. Paired Samples and Blocks
67. StepbyStep Example: A Paired tTest
68. StepbyStep Example: A Paired tInterval
70. Comparing Counts
71. StepbyStep Example: A ChiSquare Test for Goodness of Fit
72. StepbyStep Example: A ChiSquare TEst for Homogeneity
73. StepbyStep Example: A ChiSquare Test for Independence
74. Inference for Regression
75. StepbyStep Example: Regression Inference
76. StepbyStep Example: A Regression Slope ttest
Unit 1  Univariate Data Analysis
AP Statistics  unit 1 checklist
AP Statistics  unit 1 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 12
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 13
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 14
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 15
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 16
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 17
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 18
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 110
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 111
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 112
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 113
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 114
chapter 3 cheat sheet
Unit 2  Bivariate Data Analysis
AP Statistics  unit 2 supplemental reading (30 pages may take a moment to load)
AP Statistics  unit 2 checklist
AP Statistics  unit 2 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 21
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 22
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 23
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 24
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 25
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 26
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 27
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 28
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 29
AP Statistics  unit 1 lesson 210
Unit 3  Planning Studies & Experiments
AP Statistics  unit 3 supplemental reading (22 pages may take a moment to load)
AP Statistics  unit 3 checklist
AP Statistics  unit 3 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 31
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 32
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 33
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 34
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 36
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 37
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 38
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 39
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 310
AP Statistics  unit 3 lesson 311
Unit 4  Probability
AP Statistics  unit 4 supplemental reading (22 pages may take a moment to load)
AP Statistics  unit 4 checklist
AP Statistics  unit 4 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 441
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 42
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 43
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 44
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 45
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 46
AP Statistics  unit 4 lesson 47
Unit 5  Binomial & Geometric Distributions
AP Statistics  unit 5 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 51
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 52
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 53
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 54
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 55
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 56
AP Statistics  unit 5 lesson 57
Unit 6  Random Variables & Sampling Distr
AP Statistics  unit 6 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 61
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 62
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 63
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 64
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 65
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 66
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 67
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 68
AP Statistics  unit 6 lesson 69
Unit 7  Intro to Inference
AP Statistics  unit 7 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 71
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 72
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 73
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 74
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 75
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 76
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 77
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 78
AP Statistics  unit 7 lesson 79
Unit 8  Inference for Means
AP Statistics  unit 8 learning targets
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 81
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 82
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 83
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 84
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 85
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 86
AP Statistics  unit 8 lesson 87
Unit 9  Inference for Proportions
AP Statistics  unit 9 learning targets
Lesson Objectives:
What proportion of m&m candies are yellow?
Learn how to properly construct confidence intervals for proportions. This will be in part a review of the proportion content from Unit 7.
Confidence intervals for proportions:
Visit the Hyperstat site to learn about setting up confidence intervals for proportions. Be sure to only work through the 3 pages on this topic.
AP Statistics  confidence intervals
AP Statistics  confidence intervals powerpoint
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 91
Conclusion:
You should now know how to construct and correctly interpret confidence intervals for a proportion. Be sure to be precise with your terminology. Be sure to complete:
?assignment 9.1
The next lesson focuses on significance testing for one proportion.
Lesson Objectives:
15% of peanut m&ms are supposed to be yellow. Is the proportion of yellows from a sample good evidence that the proportion isn't really 15%?
Learn how to conduct significance tests for a proportion.
Significance test tutorial:
Practice setting up and conducting hypothesis tests for proportions. If you need additional review for conducting tests, follow the link:
Information on conducting a hypothesis test for a proportion at the bottom of the page.
AP Statistics  significance tutorial
Significance Testing with one proportion:
Visit the Hyperstat site to learn about what significance testing looks like when dealing with one proportion. Be sure to only work through the 4 pages on this topic.
AP Statistics  significance testing
AP Statistics  significance testing powerpoint
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 92
Conclusion:
You should now be a pro at conducting significance tests with a proportion. Don't forget the conditions! Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 9.2
The next lesson focuses on the use of your calculator to aid in confidence intervals and tests as well as how to determine the sample size needed for a given margin of error.
Lesson Objectives:
How large a sample would be necessary to determine if there is a home court advantage in college basketball?
Learn how to determine sample size for working with proportions. Also refine your calculator skills in review of confidence intervals and tests.
Using the Calculator to find Confidence Intervals:
See a tutorial on using the TI83/84 calculator to construct confidence intervals.
AP Statistics  calculating a confidence interval
Using your calculator to run one proportion ztests:
Be sure you can correctly interpret the calculator output.
AP Statistics  proportion ztest
AP Statistics  sample size powerpoint
Additional look at using your calculator:
See examples from both the 83/84 and the 89!
AP Statistics  more calculator help!
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 93
Conclusion:
You should now be able to determine a minimal sample size as well as being very efficient using your calculator to construct
one proportion confidence intervals and conduct one proportion significance tests. Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 9.3
?quiz 9a
The next lesson focuses on constructing confidence intervals for comparing two sample proportions.
Lesson objectives:
Is there a difference between the proportion of women who vote and the proportion of men who vote?
Learn to construct two proportion confidence intervals in order to compare proportions. Also learn to use your calculator to construct these.
Confidence intervals for 2 proportions:
Go to the Hyperstat site to learn about confidence intervals for 2 proportions. Be sure to only work through the 4 pages on this topic.
AP Statistics  confidence intervals supplemental reading
AP Statistics  confidence intervals powerpoint
AP Statistics  confidence intervals calculator test
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 94
Conclusion:
You should now be able to construct two proportion confidence intervals by hand as well as by using the calculator. Always remember to show how you check assumptions! Be sure to complete:
?assignment 9.4
The next lesson focuses on significance tests for two proportions.
Lesson Objectives:
Is there a difference between the proportion of workers who believe in email monitoring and the proportion of bosses who believe in email monitoring?
Learn to conduct two proportion significance tests. As the calculations become more intense, we will rely on the calculator to do the arithmetic
Significance testing for two proportions:
Visit the Hyperstat site to experience the significance test for the difference between two proportions. Be sure to only work through the 5 pages on this topic.
AP Statistics  testing of proportions
AP Statistics  testing of proportions powerpoint
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 95
Conclusion:
You should now be able to successfully conduct a two proportion z test of significance. Be sure to check assumptions (conditions), report calculations, and write conclusions.
Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 9.5
The next lesson includes review and the Unit 9 test.
AP Statistics  unit 9 lesson 96
Unit 10  Inference for Categorical Variables
AP Statistics  unit 10 learning targets
Lesson 10.1  ChiSquared Test for Goodness of Fit:
Learn how to test many proportions at once instead of just one or two! That is, instead of just wondering if you got the "right" amount of yellow m&ms in your bag,
determine if the entire bag is "right."
This lesson should take approximately 1.5 hours.
Introduction:
They're Back! How can I determine if not just my yellows but my whole bag of m&ms is not right (in terms of color)?
Learn to conduct a chisquared Goodness of Fit Test to test a group of proportions.
Overview of the Goodness of Fit Test:
Once you understand the general idea and purpose of the Goodness of Fit test, this site provides a good overview and a couple of worked examples.
AP Statistics  goodness of fit supplemental reading
The Goodness of Fit Test:
See a good explanation of how the goodness of fit test can test several proportions of a single variable in one test.
It's like doing a 4proportion ztest or a 5proportion ztest or an xproportion ztest!
AP Statistics  goodness of fit tutorial
AP Statistics  goodness of fit powerpoint
AP Statistics  unit 10 lesson 101
Conclusion:
You should now be able to conduct a chisquared test for goodness of fit.
Recall that this is a convenient test to determine if a sampled series of proportions is "as advertised" or as expected. Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 10.1
The next lesson focuses on checking the conditions under which the goodness of fit test may be performed as well as the role of the calculator in the test.
Lesson 10.2  Goodness of Fit Conditions and the Calculator:
Discover the conditions or assumptions under which we may perform the Goodness of Fit test. Also, learn the calculator's role.
Those of you with a TI89 are at a bit of an advantage (for a change) with the Goodness of Fit test. A quiz is included in this lesson.
This lesson should take approximately 2.5 hours.
Introduction:
How can I tell if a 6sided die is fair (and not loaded)  I think my friend has been cheating at Yahtzee!
Use a large sample (so you meet the conditions/assumptions) and the Goodness of Fit test to find out!
AP Statistics  goodness of fit conditions
Great video tutorials here for chisquare understanding!
AP Statistics  goodness of fit conditions
Ti 89 Calculator Help:
This site may provide some additiuonal help for ti89 calculator users.
In a nutshell, to perform a chisquared Goodness of Fit Test, Enter your observed and expected counts into lists and then simply go to tests and choose chisquared GOF.
The rest should be relatively intuitive.
AP Statistics  statistics with a TI89
AP Statistics  unit 10 lesson 102
Conclusion:
You should now be an expert in conducting the goodness of fit test.
Remember to name the test, check assumptions/conditions, state hypotheses, show calculations, and draw statistical and contextual conclusions.
Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 10.2
?quiz 10a
The next lesson works with a different type of chisquared test, the test of association or independence.
Lesson 10.3  ChiSquared Test of Association / Independence:
What's one more test at this point? Use chisquare to determine if there is an association or independence between two categorical variables.
This lesson should take approximately 1.5 hours.
Introduction:
Did the upper class people on the Titanic really survive at a different rate than the lower class people?
Learn to use the chisquare Test of Independence to determine if there really was a connection between socioeconomic status and survival rate.
This links to a program that performs the test of independence for you. It's pretty slick, just enter in data from a table and it does all
the calculations and provides you with the test statistic and pvalue.
You start by entering in the number of rows and columns and then the data. Check it out and even use it to complete the assignment.
AP Statistics  make a chisquare worksheet
Overview of Test for Independence:
Once you understand the basics, this is a good overview of the chisquared test of independence and also includes worked examples.
Don't worry about the second example which refers to a textbook.
AP Statistics  test for indendence
AP Statistics  test for independence powerpoint
AP Statistics  unit 10 lesson 103
Conclusion:
You should now be able to examine a twoway table showing the relationship between categorical variables and determine whether the variables are independent of not.
Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 10.3
The next lesson really streamline the chisquared test of independence through the use of the calculator.
Lesson 10.4  ChiSquared Test of Independence: Conditions and the Calculator:
Understand the conditions for the test of independence. Also learn to let your calculator do an immense amount of the work for you as you conduct tests of independence.
This lesson should take approximately 1.5 hours.
Introduction:
Obtain extra practice with the test of independence.
AP Statistics  chisquare tests
Conclusion:
You should now be an expert in conducting both chisquared tests; goodness of fit and test of independence.
The calculator plays a neary indispensable role, be sure you are competent and confident. Be sure you have completed:
?assignment 10.4
The next lesson is a bit of review and the unit 9 test.
AP Statistics  unit 10 lesson 104
Unit 11  Inference for Regression
AP Statistics  unit 11 learning targets
Conditions for Regression Inference:
Before you may conduct inference, you must meet certain conditions (or make assumptions).
This is no different than it was for t, z, or chisquared. Here are the conditions for regression:
First, remeber that we have n observations (that is, n data points) of an explanatory variable x and a response variable y.
In order to conduct the inference:
?For any value of x, the response variable y varies according to a normal distribution and are independent.
?The mean response of y has a straight line relationship with x. That is the mean y = a + bx. Remember the slope b and intercept a are unknown.
?The standard deviation of y is the same for all values of x and is unknown.
We will discuss how to state these conditions later.
Work through this tutorial to get a sense of how we may construct a confidence interval for the slope of a regression line.
AP Statistics  regression line inference
Summary:
To keep it simple, a confidence interval for the slope is not much different than all the other intervals you have created.
You have a mean slope (calculated from the regression) and you create your interval around it. Since it is a mean, you use t.
One difference is you use n2 degrees of freedom to find t*. This t* is then mulitplied (just like before) the standard error
(which is typically given to you in the computer output).
AP Statistics  unit 11 lesson 111
Work through this tutorial to get an idea of how to test for slope:
AP Statistics  testing for slope
Summary:
The big idea of hypothesis testing is quite similar to that of chisquare testing for independence.
?We assume there is no relationship by stating that the slope is 0 (our null hypothesis).
We then suspect (alternate hypothesis) that there is a relationship by stating that the slope is not equal to 0.
?For your calculations, your test statistic is a t which is simply the slope found by regression divided by the standard error.
For the pvalue, remember to use n2 degrees of freedom.
?Conclusions are the same as we have done before.
One advantage is that your TI calculators have a built in test for this called LinRegtTest for which
you only need to input your data (from lists) and your alternate hypothesis.
AP Statistics  unit 11 lesson 112
AP Statistics  unit 11 review notes



